Running a caching DNS resolver on your local machine can speed up all DNS requests. This is because a local DNS resolver can not only cache repeated resolves from a the same application, but also cache requests across different applications. This post will show how to set up a caching resolver on macOS with minimal configuration.
First lets see what DNS resolution is like without caching. With the
dig CLI we can see how long it takes to resolve
example.com with the freely available
22.214.171.124 resolver from CloudFlare.
It took 8 milliseconds to resolve this record using a very fast resolver. It could be much slower if you are on a slow WiFi connection, or using your ISPs provided defaults.
With DNS caching it looks like this:
Look at that sweet 0 milliseconds latency.
To achieve the above on macOS it’s very straight forward with
dnsmasq. First install
dnsmasq with HomeBrew by running:
Then ensure the DNS server starts up on login and can bind to port 53 by enabling the service as root by running:
With the above done the last remaining step is to instruct macOS to use
dnsmasq as the primary resolver. The easiest way to do this via the CLI is to use the provided
networksetup tool from Apple.
We can list all of the existing DNS severs used for requests on a network interface by running:
Wi-Fi above with the network interface that you are using. On most Macbooks
Wi-Fi is sensible but if you are not using
Wi-Fi to connect to the Internet you can see all of the network interfaces by running:
We can change the DNS servers used for requests by running:
This will set our primary resolver to the one provided by
dnsmasq and a secondary one from Cloudflare. The IP addresses from the above command will also be reflected in
/etc/resolv.conf and by running
The nice thing about the above is how simple it is. When an application wants to resolve a DNS address, it will typically pick the first IP address which is our computer running
dnsmasq. When asked to resolve a domain,
dnsmasq will check the list of resolvers on the system, skip itself, and pick the next IP address which is
dnsmasq will proxy the request to this resolver and cache the response. Subsequent requests will be served from the cache until the record expires.
Note that not specifying a real DNS resolver in addition to
127.0.0.1 will cause
dnsmasq to fail to resolve anything. All DNS requests made from your computer will fail until you revert the changes made with
With the above done, you can enjoy faster DNS resolution across all applications on macOS.